# Significant Number Factoid Friday – Today The Number Is Eighty-Four 84

“Fight Against Stupidity And Bureaucracy”

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Time for another significant number factoid.

Today the number is 84.

As usual there is a lot more to it than you might have thought.

If you are into numbers, facts, trivia, or you just like the number 84 then this is for you.

Enjoy.

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In religion

• 84 occurs in the Bible 2 times and once as part of other numbers: — Luke, 2.37 and Nehemiah, 11.18
• 84th Book of Enoch describes the Dream Visions told to Methuselah.

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In Mathematics

• 84 is the sum of the first seven triangular numbers (making it a tetrahedral number), as well as the sum of a twin prime (41 + 43).
• You can count the number 84 in two different ways in this figure. There are 84 diamond-shaped tiles to make this 2-dimensional pattern. Or you can build a 3-dimensional pyramid with 84 blocks.

• A hepteract is a seven-dimensional hypercube with 84 penteract 5-faces.
• The Greek-based numeric prefix octacontatetra- means 84.
• The Latin-based numeric prefix quattuoroctoginta- means 84.
• The Roman numeral for 84 is LXXXIV.

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In Science

• 84 is the Atomic Weight of Krypton, a noble gas and is present in the air at about 1 ppm. The atmosphere of Mars contains a little (about 0.3 ppm) of krypton. It is characterized by its brilliant green and orange spectral lines.

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• 84 is the Atomic Number of Polonium, discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie. It is a silvery metal, that has more isotopes than any other element, all of which are radioactive. Polonium has been found in tobacco as a contaminant and in uranium ores.
• Polonium has been used as an assassin’s weapon, notably, in the murder of Alexander Litvinenko, a Russian dissident, in 2006. According to Prof. Nick Priest of Middlesex University, an environmental toxicologist and radiation expert, speaking on Sky News on December 2, Litvinenko was probably the first person ever to die of the acute a-radiation effects of 210Po.

• It has also been suggested that Irène Joliot-Curie was the first person to die from the radiation effects of polonium. She was accidentally exposed to polonium in 1946 when a sealed capsule of the element exploded on her laboratory bench. In 1956 she died from leukemia.
• According to the book The Bomb in the Basement, several death cases in Israel during 1957–1969 were caused by 210Po. A leak was discovered at a Weizmann Institute laboratory in 1957. Traces of 210Po were found on the hands of professor Dror Sadeh, a physicist who researched radioactive materials. Medical tests indicated no harm, but the tests did not include bone marrow. Sadeh died from cancer. One of his students died of leukemia, and two colleagues died after a few years, both from cancer. The issue was investigated secretly, and there was never any formal admission that a connection between the leak and the deaths had existed.
• Abnormally high concentrations of 210Po have been detected in July 2012 in clothes and personal belongings of the Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, who died in 2004 of uncertain causes. However, the spokesman for the Institut de Radiophysique in Lausanne, Switzerland, where those items were analyzed, stressed that the “clinical symptoms described in Arafat’s medical reports were not consistent with polonium-210 and that conclusions could not be drawn as to whether the Palestinian leader was poisoned or not”, and that “the only way to confirm the findings would be to exhume Arafat’s body to test it for polonium-210.” On 27 November 2012 Arafat’s body was exhumed and samples were taken for separate analysis by experts from France, Switzerland and Russia. Results are expected by April 2013.

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In space

• Messier object M84 is situated in the heavily populated inner core of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. It was discovered and cataloged by Charles Messier on March 18, 1781 when he also cataloged 7 more nebulous objects in the same celestial region. M84 contains a central machine which ejects two small but conspicuous jets, which can be seen in the radio light.

• This object was also target of a 1997 investigation of M84 by the Hubble Space Telescope, shortly after its second service mission (STS-82); it was found that the nucleus of M84 contains a massive central object of 300 million solar masses, concentrated in less than 26 light years from the galaxy’s center. M84 is 60,000 light years away from the Earth.
• The planet Uranus takes 84.01 years to orbit the Sun.

• Asteroid 84 Klio was discovered on August 25, 1865 by Robert Luther at Düsseldorf, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany. It has a period of 3 years, 230 days and diameter of 59 miles. Klio [Clio] is one of the 9 Muses of Greco-Roman mythology, daughter of Hermes & Mnemosyne, Klio is the Muse of history.

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In sport

• Baseball’s 84th World Series (1987): Minnesota Twins defeats St. Louis Cardinals 4-3 Minnesota beats St. Louis at their Metrodome in Games 1 & 2 by scores of 10-1 & 8-4.
• Jerry Porter, wide receiver of the Oakland Raiders (since 2000) wears uniform #84. Started all 16 games (2004) at WR and set new career highs in receptions (68) and receiving yards (998) and tied a career high with nine touchdown catches.
• Magic Johnson of the L.A. Lakers holds the record for the most assists made— 84, in a 6-game NBA Finals Series (1985)
• Irving Fryar, Andre Rison, Mark Clayton, & Tommy McDonald are tied for 13th place with 84 career receiving touchdowns. Fryar is ranked 6th with 851 receptions & Rison 15th with 743 receptions in the NFL at the start of the 2004 season. (Receiving TDs Leaders).
• Randy Moss of the San Francisco 49ers wears number 84.
• 84th Wimbledon Mens Tennis: John Newcombe beats Ken Rosewall (5-7, 6-3, 6-2, 3-6, 6-1) on July 4, 1970.
• 84th Wimbledon Womens Tennis: Virginia Wade beats Betty Stove (4-6, 6-3, 6-1) on July 1, 1977.
• 84th Kentucky Derby was won by Tim Tam in 2:05 with Jockey Ismael Valenzuela aboard (May 3, 1958).
• 84th Preakness Stakes was won by Tim Tam in 1:57.2 with Jockey Ismael Valenzuela aboard (May 17, 1958).
• 84th Belmont Stakes was won by One Count in 2:30.2 with Jockey Eddie Arcaro aboard (June 7, 1952).
• 84th U.S. Golf Open: Fuzzy Zoeller shoots a 276 at Winged Foot Golf Course, NY (June 18, 1984)

• Women’s 100-Meters High Hurdles: height of the hurdle is 84 centimeters.
• Olympics Gold in Men’s Hammer Throw: 1988 Sergei Litvinov, USSR, 84.80 meters
• Nascar # 84 Toyota Camry, driven by A.J. Allmendinger.

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In books, music & movies

• 84 Charing Cross Road is a book about bibliophilia, containing 20 years of correspondences between a New York writer Helene Hanff and the London bookseller Frank Doel of Marks & Co. The book was originally published by Grossman Publishers, New York (1970) and reissued by Penguin, NY (1990) with an introduction by Anne Bancroft. A film of the same name was released in 1987 starring Anne Bancroft as Helen Hanff, with Anthony Hopkins as Frank P. Doel and Judi Dench as his wife, Mrs. Nora Doel.

• George Orwell wrote the classic book Nineteen Eighty-Four. The first edition of this novel was published by Secker & Warburg, London, England, in 1949.

• 84 Charlie Mopic is a 1989 film written & directed by Patrick Sheane Duncan. It is a low-budget Vietnam drama, shot entirely in hand-held documentary style, in which a camera team follows an Army unit in pursuit of ‘Charlie’. Duncan, a Vietnam veteran who served as an infantryman for 13 months during 1968-69, shot this film in the hills outside Los Angeles using Super 16mm film stock, which was later blown up to 35 mm for theatrical release. The movie’s producing company itself is called ’84 Charlie MoPic’.

• Chapter 84 of Franklin Merell-Wolff’s Pathways through to Space (1936) is a poem titled “Nirvana”.
• KKNX Radio 84 in Eugene, Oregon
• The John Larroquette Show ran on NBC from 1993 to 1996 for 84 episodes
• The B-Side to “Up All Night” (Take That song)

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In air, sea and militaria

• USS Constitution
• The USS Constitution is one of the first six frigates of the U.S. Navy, built by the Naval Act of 1794. These frigates were designed by Joshua Humphreys who designed them to be the major vessels of the young U.S. Navy. For this reason, the Constitution and the others were designed and built bigger, stronger and better armed than the rest of the frigates of the period.
• Initially she was commissioned to provide protection for merchant ships of the United States during the Quasi-War with France, and fight the Barbary Pirates of Tripoli during the War. However, the Constitution is most famous for her actions during the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain, when she captured numerous merchant ships and defeated five warships from Britain: HMS Guerriere, HMS Java, HMS Pictou, HMS Cyane and HMS Levant.
• In the battle with Guerriere she earned the nickname “Old Ironsides” and the public respect and affection that often saved her from being dismantled. This frigate has actively served the United States through the years, and either as flagship in the Mediterranean squadrons and Africa, sailed around the world in 1840. During the Civil War she served as a training ship for the Naval Academy.
• Nowadays Constitution’s mission is to promote understanding of the role of the Navy in times of war as in time of peace through educational outreach, historical demonstrations and active participation in public events. This ship is active, and as such, its crew of 60 officers and sailors members, participates in ceremonies, educational programs and special events while keeping the ship open to visitors year round offering free tours. All personnel assigned is an active member of the Navy and the allocation to this crew is considered a special duty. Traditionally, the command of the ship is assigned to a Navy commander.
• She is to date the oldest ship still afloat and is active worldwide.

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• USS Bulkeley (DDG-84)
• USS Bulkeley (DDG-84) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer in the United States Navy. She was named after Vice Admiral John D. Bulkeley, who was a World War II Medal of Honor recipient.
• Bulkeley was laid down on 10 May 1999 by Ingalls Shipbuilding and launched on 21 June 2000 in Pascagoula, Mississippi. She was commissioned on 8 December 2001 and is currently homeported at Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia.
• In February 2011, the Bulkeley was involved in a mission to rescue four American citizens from the yacht Quest which was attacked by Somali pirates.
• On 5 March 2011, Bulkeley was involved in rescuing a Japanese oil tanker, MV Guanabara, from Somali pirates while on duty with Combined Task Force 151 off the coast of Oman. Three of the pirates were tried and convicted in Japan, the fourth was turned over to juvenile authorities, as it was determined that he was a minor.
• On 16 May 2011 the Bulkeley responded to a mayday call from the Panamanian flagged very large crude carrier Artemis Glory by dispatching a Blackhawk helicopter to its position. Seeing that a piratical skiff carrying four men was firing upon the Artemis Glory, the Blackhawk engaged the skiff. After killing its four crewmembers, the helicopter withdrew without any casualties to its own crewmembers or that of the Artemis Glory.
• The ship returned to Norfolk on 15 July 2011. During its deployment, it had participated in operations which had captured 75 Somali pirates and had missile strikes by its carrier strike group against the Libyan government.

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• USS Shamrock Bay (CVE-84)
• USS Shamrock Bay (CVE-84) was a Casablanca-class escort carrier of the United States Navy. She was laid down with the hull code ACV-84 on 15 March 1943 by the Kaiser Co., Vancouver, Washington, under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1121); re-designated CVE-84 on 10 June 1943; launched on 4 February 1944; sponsored by Mrs. James R. Dudley; and commissioned on 15 March 1944, Captain Frank T. Ward, Jr., in command.

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• No. 84 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was formed on 7 January 1917 and moved to France in September 1917. It flew the SE.5 over the Western front, at one time based in Bertangles, France until it returned to the UK in August 1919. The squadron was disbanded on 30 January 1920. Its aces included Walter A. Southey.
• The squadron was reformed on 13 August 1920 at Baghdad in Iraq, moving to Shaibah in September, where it remained for the next 20 years. Its initial equipment was DH.9As (until January 1929) and these were replaced by Wapitis (beginning October 1928), Vincents (December 1934) and Blenheims Mk.Is ( February 1939), before moving to Egypt in September 1940. It later operated in Greece, Iraq, and the Western Desert before moving briefly to the Far East. No. 84 Squadron flew the Vultee Vengeance dive bomber from Assam in North-East India but, contrary to some reports, not the Commonwealth Boomerang fighter from New Guinea during World War II (this was done by No. 84 Squadron RAAF). The squadron re-equipped with the Mosquito in February 1945 and in September 1945 with the Bristol Beaufighter. In 1949 No. 84 Squadron flew Bristol Brigands during Operation Firedog.
• The squadron was disbanded again on 20 February 1953, but 204 Squadron was renumbered to No. 84 Squadron on the same day. The squadron was the transport squadron for the RAF in the Middle East till 1971. Its Vickers Valetta flight was detached to become No. 233 Squadron RAF on 1 September 1960 at RAF Khormaksar to provide general transport for the British Army in the Aden Protectorate. The squadron was disbanded yet again at Muharraq on 31 October 1971.
• The squadron was reformed on 17 January 1972 from 1563 Flt and a detachment from 230Sqn with Westland Whirlwind HAR.10s at RAF Akrotiri to aid UN operations and operate search and rescue. It later (March 1982) replaced the Whirlwind with the Westland Wessex HC.2 and later still (June 1984) with the Westland Wessex HU.5C. It was the last squadron to use the Westland Wessex.
• Since January 2003 the squadron has been assigned to British Forces Cyprus at RAF Akrotiri in the search and rescue role using the Bell Griffin HAR2. The helicopters are leased from and maintained by a civilian company. 84 Squadron aircraft are also used for UN duties in maintaining the buffer zone separating Cypriot and Turkish forces. In recognition of this role the aircraft are always unarmed and carry a light blue band around their tail, matching the blue berets of UN peacekeepers.
• 84 Squadron is the only serving squadron never to have been based in the United Kingdom.

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• Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate
• The Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate was the result of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service’s search for an aircraft that was a combination of their own agile Ki-43 Hayabusa and their fast Ki-44 Shoki that could compete with newest allied designs.
• The Ki-84 Hayate (“Gale”) or the Army Type 4 Fighter which was it’s official IJA designation. Hayate was capable of matching the best allied aircraft in the Pacific theater and with its powerful armament to bring down any allied bomber.
• It was numerically the most important fighter serving with the Japanese Army Air Force (JAAF) during the last year of the Pacific War, and was probably the best Japanese fighter aircraft to see large-scale operation during this period of the war. The Hayate was fully the equal of even the most advanced Allied fighters which opposed it, and was often their superior in many important respects. It was well armed and armoured, was fast, and was very manoeuvrable. Although it was generally outnumbered by Allied fighters which opposed it, it nevertheless gave a good account of itself in battles over the Philippines, over Okinawa, and over the Japanese home islands.

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• PS-84
• The Lisunov Li-2, originally designated PS-84 (NATO reporting name “Cab”), was a license-built version of the Douglas DC-3. It was produced by Factory #84 in Moscow-Khimki and, after evacuation in 1941, at TAPO in Tashkent. The project was directed by aeronautical engineer Boris Pavlovich Lisunov.
• Original passenger airliner, equipped with 14-28 seats. Somewhat smaller span and higher empty weight, and it was also equipped with lower-powered engines compared to the DC-3. The cargo door was also transposed to the right side of the fuselage.

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• de Havilland Dragon
• The de Havilland DH.84 Dragon was a successful small commercial aircraft designed and built by the de Havilland company.
• DH.84M Dragon : Military transport version. The DH.84M was armed with two machine guns, and it could carry up to sixteen 20 lb (9 kg) bombs. Exported to Denmark, Iraq and Portugal.

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• F-84 “Thunderjet”
• Republic Aviation Corporation, Long Island, New York, built P-84 Thunderjets in the 1940s. The Thunderjets were the last of the subsonic straight-wing fighter-bombers to see operational service. They were the aircraft with which flight-refueling techniques for fighters were developed. The first fifteen P-84 production aircraft were fitted with Allison J35A-15 engines and designated YF-84As.
• F-84 “Thunderjet” was the USAF’s first post-war fighter, making its initial flight on February 26, 1946. Gaining its greatest renown during the Korean War, it was used primarily for low-level interdiction missions. The F-84 attacked enemy railroads, bridges, supply depots and troop concentrations with bombs, rockets and napalm. Its maximum speed was 620 mph.

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• Republic XF-84H
• The Republic XF-84H “Thunderscreech” was an experimental turboprop aircraft derived from the F-84F Thunderstreak. Powered by a turbine engine that was mated to a supersonic propeller, the XF-84H had the potential of setting the unofficial air speed record for propeller-driven aircraft, but was unable to overcome teething aerodynamic deficiencies, resulting in the cancellation of the program.

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• The Canadair CL-84 “Dynavert”, designated by the Canadian Forces as the CX-131, was a V/STOL turbine tiltwing monoplane designed and manufactured by Canadair between 1964 and 1972. Only four of these experimental aircraft were built with three entering flight testing. Two of the CL-84s crashed due to mechanical failures, but no loss of life occurred as a result of these accidents. Despite the fact that the CL-84 was very successful in the experimental and operational trials carried out between 1972 and 1974, no production contracts resulted.

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• Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron 84 (HSC-84)
• Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron 84 (HSC-84) “Red Wolves” is a helicopter squadron of the United States Navy Reserve. Along with the “Firehawks” of HSC-85, the “Red Wolves” are one of only two squadrons in the U.S. Navy dedicated to supporting Navy SEAL and SWCC Teams, and Combat Search & Rescue. They currently operate eight HH-60H Rescue Hawks organized into four independent, two aircraft detachments that can deploy anywhere in the world within 72 hours of notice.

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• Calraith Rodgers
• Calraith Rodgers (1879-1912) was the first pilot to make the flight across the continental United States in 84 days. He purchased a Wright Model EX biplane, christened it the Vin Fiz, and on Sept. 17, 1911, he took off from Sheepshead Bay on Long Island, New York. Despite mechanical problems and dozens of minor incidents, Rodgers landed at Long Beach, California on Dec. 10, 1911 after flying 4231 miles in 84 days. A crowd of 50,000 cheered him when he landed.

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• AGM-84 Harpoon
• AGM-84 Harpoon is a U.S. Air-to-surface anti-ship missile. It provides the Air Force & Navy with a common missile for air, ship, and submarine launches. Built by Boeing in 1977, it has a range of 60 nautical miles with speed of 855 km/hr.

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• T-84 Main Battle Tank
• The T-84 Main Battle Tank is a Ukrainian development of the Soviet T-80 main battle tank, first built in 1993. Length= 9.72 m, Width=3.56 m, Weight= 48 tons, Speed= 70 km/hr.
• This main battle tank’s development works started in Charkov Machine-Building Plant’s Design Bureau in the late 80-ties. The T-84 is an improved modification of the T-80UD Main Battle Tank.
• After the breakup of the Soviet Union designers faced technical and supply problems. However by the help of Ukrainian Ministry of Machine-Building and Military-Production corpse there were made great preparation works to produce all parts of the new tank indigenously.
• The T-84 Main Battle Tank was publicly presented in United Arabian Emirates in 1995 during international armament exhibition. The new tank called interest in the Pakistan Army and after a long negotiations there was made an agreement to sell 320 T-84 Main Battle Tanks for Pakistan.

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• M-84
• The M-84 is a main battle tank from the former Yugoslavia .
• In the 1970s, the Yugoslav army decided to develop its own battle tanks and produce. Due to lack of experience of the Yugoslav military industry in tank, it was decided to use the time very advanced Soviet tank T-72 as a base. The rights of the licensed acquired in 1979 by the Soviet Union. Codenamed Kapela was in the armor wrought Ðuro Ðakovic in Slavonski Brod (Croatia) started production. The first prototype was completed in 1983, and mass production began 1984.  Until the outbreak of war in Yugoslavia over 500 pieces for the Yugoslav army were produced. The battle tank M-84 presented a significant improvement of the overall T-72 represents in the following years made more combat performance upgrades and modernizations in different versions.

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• Z-84
• The Z-84 again replaced the previous Star SMGs in service, starting in the mid 1980s. The theory was to acquire a gun in 9 mm Parabellum, to match their pistols (and the NATO countries finally). It was offered on the commercial market in 9 mm Largo, but none seem to have been made.
• The Spanish Army, Air Force and Marines supposedly mostly got out of issuing SMGs around the time this emerged — much like the rest of the world — due to the prevalence of lightweight, select-fire rifles. Unlike the previous replacement cycles, therefore, the Z-70B is still in widespread service for those who are issued SMGs (see the sailors at the top of the page). The Z84 is employed by some Guardia, Police and Military units. Aside from general use (such as the boarding party sailors below), in a recent Small Arms Review article, Julio Montes says:
• An interesting weapon in the hands of these naval commandos [the UEBC and UOE] is the locally made Star Z-84… It has proved very efficient and reliable even after being submerged and beat up for longer periods of time. The ever-present MP5 is also found.

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• Mauser Gewehr 71/84
• On December 2, 1871, the Mauser Infantry Rifle Model 71, was officially adopted by the Prussian government, thus becoming the first bolt-action metallic cartridge rifle to enter German military service.
• The original design single-shot was updated in 1884, refinements including an 8-round tubular magazine designed by Alfred von Kropatschek, making this Germany’s first repeating rifle. This version was designated the Gewehr 71/84 and was officially adopted by the army of Kaiser Wilhelm I on January 31, 1884.
• In the film The Last Samurai the Japanese Imperial Army carries German bolt-action Mauser M1871/84 rifles, in spite of the fact they were supposedly being armed by the U.S. The 1884 models were altered in appearance by film makers to resemble the more period accurate 1871 models.

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• Carl Gustav Recoiles Rifle
• The Carl Gustav (also Carl-Gustaf and M2CG; pronounced “Carl Gustaf”) is the common name for the 84 mm man-portable reusable multi-role recoilless rifle produced by Saab Bofors Dynamics (formerly Bofors Anti-Armour AB) in Sweden.
• The first prototype of the Carl Gustaf was produced in 1946, and while similar weapons of the era have generally disappeared, the Carl Gustaf remains in widespread use today.
• British troops refer to it as the Charlie G, while Canadian troops often refer to it as the 84, Carl G or Carlo. In U.S. military service it is known as the M3 Multi-role Anti-armor Anti-tank Weapon System (MAAWS) or Ranger Antitank Weapons System (RAWS), but is often called the Gustav or the Goose or simply the Carl Johnson by U.S. soldiers. In Australia it is irreverently known as Charlie Gusto or Charlie Gutsache (guts ache, slang for stomach pain). In its country of origin it is officially named Grg m/48 (Granatgevär or grenade rifle, model 48).
• In recent years, the weapon has found new life in a variety of roles. The British Special Air Service, United States Special Forces and United States Army Rangers use M3s in bunker-busting and anti-vehicle roles, while the German Bundeswehr maintains a small number of M2s for battlefield illumination. Many armies continue to use it as a viable anti-armor weapon, especially against 1950s- and 1960s-era tanks and other armored vehicles still in use worldwide.
• In a well-documented incident during the Falklands War, a Royal Marine attacked an Argentinian corvette (ARA Guerrico) using a Carl Gustav.
• The Carl Gustav was used against Taliban defensive fortifications by soldiers of Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry in operations in Afghanistan. They developed a new system for firing at night in which a spotter with a night-scope fires tracer ammunition to mark the target for the Carl Gustav gunner.[citation needed]
• Carl Gustav launchers were used by Free Libyan Army during the Libyan civil war in 2011; the weapons being used were either captured or provided by defecting members of the Libyan Army.

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• M84 Škorpion vz. 61
• The Škorpion vz. 61 is a Czechoslovak 7.65 mm submachine gun developed in 1959 by Miroslav Rybár (1924–1970) and produced under the official designation Samopal vzor 61 (“submachine gun model 1961”) by the Ceská zbrojovka arms factory in Uherský Brod.
• Although it was developed for use with security forces and special forces, the weapon was also accepted into service with the Czechoslovak Army, as a personal sidearm for lower-ranking army staff, vehicle drivers, armored vehicle personnel and special forces. Currently the weapon is in use with the armed forces of several countries as a sidearm.
• The Škorpion was also license-built in Yugoslavia, designated M84. It features a synthetic pistol grip compared to the original version. A civilian, semi-automatic version was also produced, known as the M84A, also available in .380 ACP (9×17mm Short).

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Other stuff

• Cities located at 84o longitude: Atlanta, Georgia; Cincinnati, Ohio; Knoxville, Tennessee; Agraharam, India; Vamsadhara River, India; San Jose, Costa Rica
• 84 is the code for international direct dial phone calls to Vietnam.
• 84 is used as the country ISBN code for books from the Spain.
• Baiyoke Sky Hotel, at 84 stories high is the tallest building in Thailand.

• The number of the French department Vaucluse
• The town of Eighty Four, Pennsylvania
• A variation of the game 42 played with two sets of dominoes.
• The company 84 Lumber

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# Significant Number Factoid Friday – Today Number Forty-Four 44

“Fight Against Stupidity And Bureaucracy”

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Okay, this week’s significant number was either going to be 44 or 45, but, rightly or wrongly, the American people voted for Barack Obama and so the number is 44  –  hard luck Mitt.

So here we go, and just like President Obama we’re not sure exactly where.

Enjoy.

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## 44 Forty-four

In politics

• In the U.S. presidential election of 1944, Franklin D. Roosevelt won reelection over Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey, becoming the only U.S. president elected to a fourth term.

• A few days ago Barack Obama was elected to his second term as the 44th US President.

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In mathematics

• 44 is a tribonacci number, a happy number, an octahedral number and a palindromic number.

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In science

• 44 is the atomic number of ruthenium

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In space

• STS-44 was the 44th Shuttle mission. It was cut short after one of its three navigational units failed.

• Messier object M44, also known as the Beehive Cluster, is a magnitude 4.0 open cluster in the constellation Cancer,

• 44 is the Saros number of the solar eclipse series which began on April 30, 1448 BC and ended on June 7, 168 BC . The duration of Saros series 44 was 1280.1 years, and it contained 72 solar eclipses.
• The Saros number of the lunar eclipse series which began on October 1, 1363 BC and ended on March 27, 153 . The duration of Saros series 44 was 1514.5 years, and it contained 85 lunar eclipses.

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In sport

• 44 is the retired number for former baseball players Hank Aaron, Willie McCovey and Reggie Jackson; the number is sometimes considered to be a “hitter’s number”.

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• In the NFL 44 was the number of Floyd Little (Denver Broncos) and Pete Retzlaff (Philadelphia Eagles)

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• In the NBA 44 was the number of Dan Issel, (Denver Nuggets); Jerry West (L.A. Lakers); Paul Westphal (Phoenix Suns); Sam Lacey (Sacramento Kings); and George Gervin (San Antonio Spurs).

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• A number of football legends at Syracuse University also wore 44, most notably by Jim Brown, Ernie Davis, Floyd Little, and Rob Konrad. Although the number was officially retired in 2005, the legend of 44 remains an important part of the identity of Syracuse University.

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In WWII

1944 was arguably the most interesting year of World War II. Incidents of note included:

• The Fosse Ardeatine massacre in Rome when 335 Italians are killed, including 75 Jews and over 200 members of the Italian Resistance from various groups.

• The real “Great Escape” (as opposed to the famous movie version) when 76 Royal Air Force prisoners escape by tunnel “Harry” from Stalag Luft III. Only three made it back to the UK, and of those recaptured, fifty were executed.

• Exercise Tiger, or Operation Tiger, was the code name for one in a series of large-scale rehearsals for the D-Day invasion of Normandy, which took place on Slapton Sands or Slapton Beach in Devon.
• The first practice assault took place on the morning of 27 April. H-hour was set for 7:30 am, and was to be preceded by a live firing exercise to acclimatize the troops to the sights, sounds and even smells of a naval bombardment. During the landing itself, live rounds were to be fired over the heads of the incoming troops by forces on land, for the same reason. This followed an order made by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Allied Commander, who felt that the men must be hardened by exposure to real battle conditions.
• The British heavy cruiser HMS Hawkins was to shell the beach with live ammunition, from 6:30 to 7:00 am, giving the beachmasters half an hour to inspect the beach and declare it safe.
• However, several of the landing ships for that morning were delayed, and the officer in charge decided to delay the bombardment until 8:30am. This message was received by HMS Hawkins, but not by a number of the landing craft, with the result that troops were landing on the beach at the same time as the bombardment was taking place. This unfortunate mix-up resulted in a “friendly fire” incident with 946 American servicemen losing their lives.
• The incident was under the strictest secrecy at the time due to the impending invasion, and was only nominally reported afterward. As a result it has been a largely “forgotten” disaster of WWII.

• On June 6 Operation Overlord, or the D-Day landings, took place, when 155,000 Allied troops shipped from England land on the beaches of Normandy in northern France.
• It was the largest amphibious military operation in history and was the beginning of the liberation of France and the other countries in Europe invaded by Nazi Germany.

• Also in 1944, on July 20 there was an unsuccessful assassination attempt on the life of Adolf Hitler led by Claus von Stauffenberg.

• At the beginning of August 1944 the Warsaw Uprising began and lasted until October 2, when it was finally ended by Nazi troops.

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• Also in August of that year, the Gestapo, acting on a tip off from a Dutch informer, sealed-off an area in an Amsterdam warehouse and captured Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family.
• They were placed on the last transport train from Westerbork to Auschwitz, and on October 30, Anne Frank and sister Margot Frank are deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.

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In militaria

• The .44 Remington Magnum or .44 Special are popular large-bore cartridge calibres. Originally designed for revolvers, a their introduction, they were quickly adopted for carbines and rifles as well.

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• However many people mistakenly believe that the Smith & Wesson (S&W) .44 calibre revolver heavily featured in numerous Hollywood movies, particularly Clint Eastwood’s Dirty Harry is called the .44 Magnum (the most powerful handgun in the world), neither of which are true. The revolver used in those movies is actually the Smith & Wesson Model 29, a six-shot, double-action revolver chambered for the .44 Magnum cartridge. It comes in a variety of models with 3″, 4″, 5″, 6″, 6½”, 8″ and, later, 10″ barrel lengths.

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• StG 44
• The StG 44 (Sturmgewehr 44) is an assault rifle developed in Nazi Germany during World War II that was the first of its kind to see major deployment and is considered by many historians to be the first modern assault rifle.
• It is also known under the designations MP 43 and MP 44 (Maschinenpistole 43, Maschinenpistole 44 respectively).

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• Pzf 44
• Panzerfaust 44 “Lanze” (or Pzf 44 in short) is an antitank weapon. Development of this weapon commenced circa 1960, with grenade and launcher developed by German company Dynamit-Nobel AG.
• The Pzf 44 entered German service during mid-sixties and in several modifications served until mid-eighties, when it was replaced by moremodern Panzerfaust 3 (Pzf 3) weapon.
• It is a .44 Magnum carbine with a synthetic stock and stainless steel fittings. In common with many Ruger carbines it uses a rotary magazine which holds 4 rounds and fits inside the stock under the breech.

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• DL-44
• The BlasTech Industries DL-44 heavy blaster pistol was a powerful sidearm from the time of the Galactic Civil War (yes, a little bit of sci-fi talk here). The DL-44 is described as a powerful, highly modifiable and accurate blaster pistol.
• However, in outward design it is uncannily like the (real) German “Broomhandle” Mauser C96 pistol, used by both its German creators and the Ottoman Empire during World War I, and wound up in the hands of such notable figures as T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) and Winston Churchill, and also saw service among various revolutionary movements throughout the world following the First World War.

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• T-44
• The T-44 was a medium tank first produced towards the end of the Second World War by the Soviet Union. It was the successor to the famous T-34. Fewer than two thousand T-44s were built, but the design became the basis for the T-54/55 series of main battle tanks, the most-produced tank of all time.

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• TKX
• The TKX is a relatively new Japanese tank with a 120mm gun, costing approximately \$7 million and weighing in at 44 tons weight.

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• A-44
• Sometimes known as the ‘mystery tank’, the A-44 was developed as T-34 modernization program in 1941. 29-30 tonns, Hull front armour – up to 75 at 60 degrees, sides – 60mm, 76.2mm and 57mm cannons, 600hp enqine. Only paper project.

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• XB-44
• One B-29A was handed over to Pratt & Whitney to be used as a testbed for the installation of the new Wasp Major 28-cylinder engines in the B-29. They came up with the XB-44 variant.

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• X-44 MANTA
• The Lockheed Martin X-44 MANTA (Multi-Axis No-Tail Aircraft) was a conceptual aircraft design that has been studied by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. It was intended to test the feasibility of full yaw, pitch and roll control without tailplanes (horizontal or vertical), attitude manipulation relying purely on 3D thrust vectoring. The aircraft design was derived from the F-22 Raptor and featured a stretched delta wing and no tail surfaces.

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• T-44A
• The T-44A “Pegasus” aircraft is a twin-engine, pressurized, fixed-wing monoplane, manufactured by Beech Aircraft Corporation, Wichita, Kansas, whose mission is to train Navy and Marine Corps pilots.

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Other stuff

• Cities on the 44th parallel include, Minneapolis,  Simferopol (Ukraine), Bordeaux  (France),  Belgrade and Šabac (Serbia), Halifax (Nova Scotia, Canada), Bucharest (Romania), Pierre (South Dakota), Augusta (Maine), and Montpelier (Vermont).
• Cities on the 44th line of longitude include, São Luís (Brazil), Sana’a (Yemen), Baghdad (Iraq), Nizhny Novgorod (Russia), Hargeisa (Somalia), Arbil (Iraqi Kurdistan), Yerevan (Armenia), and Tbilisi (Georgia).
• 44 is the international direct dial code for phone calls to the United Kingdom;
• Interstate 44 is the freeway that runs from Texas to Missouri;
• U.S. Route 44, is the highway that runs from New York to Massachusetts;
• In Pennsylvania Route 44(PA 44), is the long state highway in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania
• The name of a mysterious savior of Poland was prophesied by the Polish national poet Adam Mickiewicz in his masterpiece dramatic poem Dziady (Forefathers). In scene 5 of act 3, the priest Piotr announces a “reviver of the nation” who is to bring back the lost freedom of Poland, and describes him as: “Born from a foreign mother, his blood of ancient heroes, And his name will be forty and four.”
• 44 is the name of a variant of the card game poker.
• +44 is the name of a band that includes Blink-182 vocalist/bassist Mark Hoppus and Blink-182 drummer Travis Barker.
• A blues song, Forty-Four, also known as “44 Blues”
• Vicks Formula 44 is a cough suppressant
• The 44 Cent Cure is the cost of treatment of intestinal worms that affect 400 million children in various arts of the world and leads to stunted physical and mental development in both boys and girls. They also cause nausea and diarrhea and in severe cases, they kill.
• 44 is the largest number for which Wolfram Alpha offers a visual representation.
• Wyoming was the 44th state to join The United States of America.
• There are 44 candles in a box of Hanukkah candles.
• An agent in the American Television series Get Smart goes under the title of 44, usually assigned to small, enclosed, unexpected spots, to meet Maxwell Smart, agent 86.
• On January 15 1944 An earthquake hits San Juan, Argentina, killing an estimated 10,000 people in the worst natural disaster in Argentina’s history.
• In 1944 meat rationing ends in Australia.
• On March 4, 1944 in Ossining, New York, Louis Buchalter, the leader of 1930s crime syndicate Murder, Inc., was executed at Sing Sing, along with Emanuel Weiss, and Louis Capone.
• In 1944 IBM dedicates the first program-controlled calculator, the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (known best as the Harvard Mark I).
• On September 14, 1944 the ‘Great Atlantic Hurricane’ makes landfall in the New York City area.
• And on October 20 an LNG explosion destroyed a square mile of Cleveland, Ohio.

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